Thousands of acres of wine grapes dot the landscape, contributing to Washington’s No. 2 rank for premium wine production behind California. Farmers grow more than two-thirds of U.S. hops for big beer companies and craft brewers alike, and a large tobacco field is flourishing on a valley Indian reservation.
Now that Washington voters have legalized marijuana, will a region long recognized as one of the country’s leading fruit bowls, best celebrated for Washington apples, become known as the vice belt? Not necessarily.
Too many unanswered questions remain about the new law, from how the state will regulate it to whether entrepreneurs or large corporations should lead the way. And the biggest question: the federal government’s role going forward. Marijuana remains illegal under federal law. Many states have approved it for medical use, but only Washington and Colorado have legalized it for recreational use.
The Justice Department has not said whether it will try to block the two states from implementing their new laws, passed late last year. For that reason, key land-grant universities that typically aid the agriculture industry by researching such things as pest control and crop yields – but rely on federal funding to do so – are avoiding the marijuana industry altogether.
In addition, marijuana is a crop that can’t be insured, and federal drug law bars banks from knowingly serving the industry.
Any combination of those factors makes farmers leery of planting marijuana in the near term, said Bob Young, chief economist for the American Farm Bureau Federation. “At this stage of the game, it poses tremendous problems for growers,” he said. “Quite frankly, I’d tell one of our members to approach this with great caution.”
Both states are in the process of developing rules for a legal marijuana industry. In Washington state, a Liquor Control Board that privatized liquor sales statewide last year on orders of a different voter-approved initiative now is tasked with developing rules governing pot cultivation, processing and sales.
Of the three licenses the board will authorize – grower, processor, seller – the rules for producing marijuana raise the most complex issues, said Randy Simmons, project manager for the Liquor Control Board.
How many farmers should be allowed to produce marijuana in order to meet demand, and how big should their crops be? Where should they get their seeds? Should a crop be grown indoors or in fields outside?
Dozens of marijuana experts, who have been growing plants for medical use or in secret for illegal use, are educating state officials about the potential for the crop.